Tools and Resources

Four-Stage Model

Note: these four stages model the progression of a facilitated intergroup dialogue

Sources: Nagda, B. A. (2001). Creating space for hope and possibility: A curriculum guide for intergroup dialogue. Seattle: IDEA Center.

Dialogue, Discussion, and Debate

Note: each method of conversation has benefits and shortcomings depending on the goal of communication

Sources: Differentiating Dialogue From Discussion: A Working Model (Kardin and Sevig, 1997) and Exploring the Differences Between Dialogue, Discussion, and Debate (Tanya Kachwaha, 2002, adapted from Huang Nissan, 1999).